Earth and Planetary Science
EPS Atmosphere, Oceans, and Climate

Research Spotlights

 Advanced Field Geology Field Camp Video

The EPS 118 Advanced Field Geology class is the capstone experience for geology majors in Earth and Planetary Science. The 2016 field camp took place at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) in Mammoth Lakes, CA from June 3rd - July 1st. Students spend four weeks in the field integrating all of the training and knowledge gained in their geology coursework to address a large but focused question, and produce a map to answer scientific questions.

This video was taken by the EPS 118 students to show their camaraderie and experience in the field.

 

In fall 2016, Daniella Rempe joins the faculty of the University of Texas, Austin; she begins her tenure as an assistant professor in the Jackson School of Geosciences. Daniella is currently completing her graduate work with Professor William E. Dietrich in the UC Berkeley Department of Earth & Planetary Science.

Daniella specializes in hydrologic field observations, fluid flow and near surface geophysics. In layman's terms, she is obsessed with water; how it travels through rock; what it picks up along the way; and how water transforms the environment. She focuses on how landscapes store water in the shallow subsurface, a particularly relevant topic seeing how much of Earth's hilly regions are mantled with weathered rock. Daniella especially looks at the ecological significance of rock moisture; controls on the bottom boundary of the Critical Zone; and geophysical imaging of landscape scale patterns of weathering.

Daniella is proud to be a native Texan with the stupendous opportunity to take a teaching and research position at the flagship university. She was born in Houston, called Plano home for her secondary school years and then, obviously, lived in Austin for college. It must have been a case of serendipity for her to spend her undergraduate years in Central Texas, as Daniella credits her visits to Barton Springs as piquing her interest in water and hydrology. Barton Springs is a natural water-fed swimming hole playing host not only to sunbathers and swimmers but also to important geological processes such as faulting and the dissolution of limestone by infiltrating water. It was at Barton Springs that Daniella discovered her fascination and obsession with water.

Daniella will join the faculty of the Jackson School of Geosciences at UT as a hydrologist and geomorphologist. 

For information on the Rempe Research Group, click here.

The work of Professor Barbara Romanowicz and recent graduate Dr. Scott French is highlighted on Berkeley News Center's page from earlier this month. 

"University of California, Berkeley, seismologists have produced for the first time a sharp, three-dimensional scan of Earth's interior that conclusively connects plumes of hot rock rising through the mantle with surface hotspots that generate volcanic island chains like Hawaii, Samoa and Iceland."

Continue reading the full story on the Berkeley News website.

Waveform Tomography Reveals Channeled Flow at the Base of the Oceanic Asthenosphere

Applying a new waveform imaging methodology that takes advantage of accurate numerical seismic wavefield computations, Barbara Romanowicz's group has constructed a global shear velocity model in the upper mantle that reveals the presence of low velocity channels at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere. In a paper recently published in Science (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6155/227), graduate student Scott French, former graduate student Vedran Lekic (now assistant professor at the University of Maryland) and Barbara Romanowicz show that these quasi-periodic finger-like structures of wavelength ~2000 km, stretch parallel to the direction of absolute plate motion for thousands of kilometers. Below 400 km depth, velocity structure is organized into fewer, undulating but vertically coherent, low-velocity plume-like features, which appear rooted in the lower mantle. This suggests the presence of a dynamic interplay between plate-driven flow in the low-velocity zone, and active influx of low-rigidity material from deep mantle sources deflected horizontally beneath the moving top boundary layer. Hotspots are not the direct consequence of plumes impinging on the lithosphere

EPS Water Phase Diagram

Over the last three years, Burkhard Militzer's group has been working on understanding water at megabar pressures with ab initio computer simulations. In the interiors of Uranus and Neptune (dashed lines in figure) where such pressures exist, water is predicted to occur in a superionic state where the oxgyen atoms remain stationary like in a solid while the hydrogen atoms diffuse throughout the crystal like a fluid. In the most recent article that appeared in the journal Physical Review Letters, postdoc Hugh Wilson, summer student Michael Wong, and Burkhard Militzer, show that, at 1.0±0.5 megabars, the oxygen sub-lattice in superionic water changes from a body-centered cubic lattice to an face-cented cubic lattice (inset). This transformation lead to a more efficient packing but also reduces the diffusion rate of the hydrogen atoms, which may have further implications for electronic conductivity and magnetic dynamo in Uranus and Neptune. This theorectical prediction is expected to be verified with laboratory experiments using shock wave and x-ray diffration techniques.

Over the last years Rudy Wenk’s group in the department has developed methods to investigate deformation of materials at ultrahigh pressures with diamond anvil cells. It was observed that brittle minerals such as olivine, perovskite and postperovskite become ductile above 20 GPa. This approach has been applied to study deformation mechanisms of rocks at deep Earth conditions and was applied to explain seismic anisotropy. A recent collaboration of Rudy and graduate student Jane Kanitpanyacharoen with scientists at the high pressure beamline 12.2.2. of the Advanced Light Source applied the technique to nanocrystalline metals which were generally thought not to be subject to dislocation glide. Yet at 37 GPa synchrotron X-ray diffraction images reveal that preferred orientation developed in nanocrystalline nickel, suggesting that also here pressure promotes dislocation activity. It highlights the university as a forum for interdisciplinary interaction, where methods developed by earth scientists to investigate the deep earth are used by engineers to shed light on puzzles of nanomaterials, one of the big issue in materials science. The novel results are reported in the recent issue of Science.

In a report published in the April 1, 2012 issue of Nature Geoscience, EPS faculty member Kristie Boering (also Dept. of Chemistry), former EPS graduate student Sunyoung Park, and their co-authors measured the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrous oxide in air samples collected since 1978 at the Cape Grim Air Pollution Baseline Station (pictured) and in air trapped in snow in Antarctica dating back to 1940. The trends in the isotopes represent a "smoking gun" showing unequivocably that increasing fertilizer use is responsible for the dramatic rise in atmospheric nitrous oxide, which is a major greenhouse gas contributing to global climate change. Read Press Release from UC Berkeley at http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2012/04/02/fertilizer-use-responsible-for-increase-in-nitrous-oxide-in-atmosphere/ Read the article at http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v5/n4/abs/ngeo1421.html

In a report published in the April 1, 2011 issue of Science, EPS faculty members David Shuster, Kurt Cuffey (also Dept. of Geography), former EPS graduate student Johnny Sanders, and Greg Balco of the Berkeley Geochronology Center, used apatite (U-Th)/He and 4He/3He thermochronometry to investigate topographic evolution in the archetypal glacial landscape of Fiordland, New Zealand. They found that the topography near Milford Sound was clearly not in steady state over the last 2 million years, while erosion removed the entire pre-Pleistocene landscape. Their data are best explained by up-valley propagation of erosion through the glacier-carved landscape during this time. This scenario is consistent with a subglacial erosion rate dependent on ice sliding velocity, but not ice discharge. Read Press Release from UC Berkeley at http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2011/03/31/novel-technique-reveals-how-glaciers-sculpted-their-valleys/ Read the full report at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6025/84.full

Water ice is one of the most prevalent substances in the solar system, with the majority of it existing at high pressures in the interiors of giant planets. The known phase diagram of water is extremely rich, with at least fifteen crystal phases observed experimentally. In our article in Physical Review Letters (see also cond-mat), Hugh Wilson and I (Burkhard Militzer) explore the phase diagram of water ice by means of ab initio computer simulations and predict two new phases to occur at megabar pressures. In the figure from top to bottom, you see

  1. ice X the highest pressure phase seen in experiments,
  2. the Pbcm phase that was predicted with computer simulations in 1996,
  3. our new Pbca phase that transforms out of the Pbcmphase via a phonon instability at 7.6 Mbar, and finally
  4. our new Cmcm structure that is metallic and predicted to occur at 15.5 Mbar.

The known high pressure ice phases VII, VIII, X and Pbcmas well as our Pbca phase are all insulating and composed of two interpenetrating hydrogen bonded networks, but the Cmcm structure is metallic and consists of corrugated sheets of H and O atoms. The H atoms are squeezed into octahedral positions between next-nearest O atoms while they occupy tetrahedral positions between nearest O atoms in the ice X, Pbcm, and Pbca phases.

In a report published in the Sept. 24 issue of Science, current and former graduate students Lowell Miyagi, Waruntorn (Jane) Kanitpanyacharoen, Pamela Kearcher and Kanani Lee (Lowell and Kanani are now at Yale), working with faculty member Rudy Wenk, describe diamond anvil high pressure deformation experiments performed at ALS on the enigmatic mineral phase postperovskite MgSiO3. They observe strong mineral alignment due to intracrystalline dislocation movements that can be captured in inverse pole figures. This alignment, when applied to lowest mantle rheology, predicts fast S-waves to be polarized parallel to the core mantle boundary which is just what seismologists observe. Linking microscopic processes to macroscopic geodynamics provides new insight about the deep earth. Read Press Release from UC Berkeley.

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