The nature and evolution of planetary interiors, as well as the properties of materials at high pressures.
Raymond Jeanloz and his group study the nature and evolution of planetary interiors, as well as the properties of materials at high pressures. Much of their work is based on experiments with laser-heated diamond-anvil cells, and they also pursue shock-wave experiments and quantum mechanical calculations of material properties.
Raymond Jeanloz' group uses mineral physics to understand the properties and dynamics of planetary interiors. They helped obtain the first experimental constraints on the temperature at Earth's center, and showed that a single perovskite-structured mineral (stable only at pressures above 20 GPa) makes up the bulk of the rocky mantle. They also showed that the deep mantle reacts chemically with the liquid iron alloy of the outer core, making the core-mantle boundary one of Earth's most dynamic regions. Studies on carbon suggest that diamond may be hailing downward inside Neptune and Uranus.
Experiments applying laser-driven compression methods (shock, multi-shock and ramp loading) to samples pre-compressed in diamond-anvil cells are providing new information about the chemical bonding in crystals and fluids at deep-planetary conditions, and are extending laboratory compression experiments from the Megabar to the Gigabar range: beyond the atomic unit of pressure (294 Mbar), and into the regime of "kilovolt chemistry" that engages inner atomic orbitals in chemical bonding.
Raymond Jeanloz also works at the interface of science and policy, serving as an advisor to government, industry and academia, and chairing the National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control . He is a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
SELECTED RECENT PUBLICATIONS [*indicates contributions in policy]
Eggert, J. H., Hicks, D. G., Celliers, P. M., Bradley, D. K., McWilliams, R. S., Jeanloz, R., Miller, J. E., Boehly, T. R., and Collins, G. W., 2010, Melting temperature of diamond at ultra-high pressure, Nature Physics, 6, 40-43.
McWilliams, R. S., Eggert, J. H., Hicks, D. G., Bradley, D. K., Celliers, P. M., Spaulding, D. K., Boehly, T. R., Collins, G. W., and Jeanloz, R., 2010, Strength effects in diamond under shock compression from 0.1 to 1 TPa, Phys. Rev. B., 81, 014111.
Xu, W. M., Rozenberg, G. K., Pasternak, M. P., Kurnosov, A., Dubrovinsky, L. S., Pascarelli, S., Munoz, M., Vaccari, M.,Hanfland, M., and Jeanloz, R., 2010, Pressure-induced Fe « Cu cationic valence exchange and its structural consequences: High-pressure studies of delafossite CuFeO2, Phys. Rev.B, 81, 104110.
Chen, B., Gleason, A. E., Yan, J. Y., Koski, K. J., Clark, S. M., and Jeanloz, R., 2010, Elasticity, strength and refractive index of argon at high pressures, Phys. Rev. B., 81, 144110.
Celliers, P. M., Loubeyre, P., Eggert, J.H., Brygoo, S., McWilliams, R. S., Hicks, D. G., Boehly, T. R., Jeanloz, R., and Collins, G. W., 2010, The insulator to conducting transition in dense fluid helium, Phys. Rev. Lett., 104,184503.
*Smith, H. P., and Jeanloz, R., 2010, Britain leads the way to global zero, Arms Control Today, 40, 15-18.
Gleason, A. E., Marquardt, H., Chen, B., Speziale, S., Wu, J., and Jeanloz, R., 2011, Anomalous sound velocities in MgO under non-hydrostatic compression, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, 10.1029/2010GL045860.
Marquardt, H., Gleason, A., Marquardt, K., Speziale, S., Miyagi, L., Neusser, G., Wenk, H. R., and Jeanloz, R., 2011, Elastic properties of MgO nanocrystals and grain boundaries at high pressures by Brillouin scattering, Phys. Rev. B, 84, 064131.
Arielly, R., Xu, W. M., Greenberg, E., Rozenberg, G. Kh., Pasternak, M. P., Garbarino, G., Clark, S., and Jeanloz, R., 2011, Intriguing sequence of GaFeO3 structures and electronic states to 70 GPa, Phys. Rev. B,84, 094109.
*Drell, S. D., and Jeanloz, R., 2011, Nuclear deterrence in a world without nuclear weapons, in Deterrence, Its Past and Future (G. P. Shultz, S. D. Drell and J.E. Goodby, eds.), Hoover Press, Stanford, CA, pp. 99-129.
Spaulding, D. K., McWilliams, R. S., Jeanloz, R., Eggert, J. H., Celliers, P. M., Hicks, D. G., Collins, G. W., and Smith, R. F., 2012, Evidence for a phase transition in silicate melt at extreme pressure and temperature conditions, Phys. Rev. Lett., 108, 065701.
Millot, M., Geballe, Z. M., Yu, K. M., Walukiewicz, W., and Jeanloz, R., 2012, Red-green luminescence in indium gallium nitride alloys investigated by high pressure spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. Lett., 100, 162103.
*Jeanloz, R., 2012, Long-range effects of nuclear disasters, in The Nuclear Enterprise (G. P. Shultz, S. D. Drell and J. E. Goodby, eds.), Hoover Press, Stanford, CA, pp. 107-126.
Geballe, Z., and Jeanloz, R., 2012, Origin of temperature plateaus in laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments, J. Appl. Phys., 111, 123518.
Loubeyre, P., Brygoo, S., Eggert, J., Celliers, P. M., Spaulding, D. K., Rygg, J. R., Boehly, T. R., Collins, G. W., and Jeanloz, R., 2012, Extended data set for the equation of state of warm dense hydrogen isotopes, Phys. Rev. B, 86, 144115.
McWilliams, R. S., Spaulding, D. K., Eggert, J. H., Celliers, P. M., Hicks, D. G., Smith, R. F., Collins, G. W., and Jeanloz, R., 2012, Phase transformations and metallization of magnesium oxide at high pressure and temperature, Science, 338, 1330-1333.
*Jeanloz, R., Fung, I., Bowyer, T. W., and Wofsy, S. C., 2013, Beyond arms-control monitoring, Science, 339, 761-762.
Godwal, B. K., Stackhouse, S., Yan, J., Speziale, S., Militzer, B., and Jeanloz, R., 2013, Codetermination of crystal structures at high pressure: Combined application of theory and experiment to the intermetallic compound AuGa2, Phys. Rev. B, 87, 100101.
Wang, J., Smith, R. F., Eggert, J. H., Braun, D. G., Boehly, T. R., Patterson, J. R., Celliers, P. M., Jeanloz, R., Collins, G. W. Duffy, T. S., 2013, Ramp compression of iron to 273 GPa, J. Appl. Phys., 114, 023513.
Geballe, Z. M., Raju, S. V., Godwal, B. K., and Jeanloz, R., 2013, Clapeyron slope reversal in the melting curve of AuGa2 at 5.5 GPa, J. Phys.-Condensed Matter, 25, 415401.
Geballe, Z. M., and Jeanloz, R., 2014, Solid phases of FeSi to 47 GPa and 2800 K: New data, Am. Mineral., 99, 720-723.
Smith, R. F., Eggert, J. H., Jeanloz, R., Duffy, T. S., Braun, D. G., Patterson, J. R., Rudd, R. E., Biener, J., Lazicki, A. E., Hamza, A. V., Wang, J., Braun, T., Benedict, L. X., Celliers, P. M., and Collins, G. W., 2014, Ramp compression of diamond to 5 TPa: Experiments taking carbon to the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac regime, Nature, 511, 330-333.
M. Millot, N. Dubrovinskaia, A. Cernok, S. Blaha, L. Dubrovinsky, D. G. Braun, P. M. Celliers, G. W. Collins, J. H. Eggert and R. Jeanloz, Shock compression of stishovite and melting of silica at planetary interior conditions, Science, 347, 418-420 (2015).
S. J. Ali, C. A. Bolme, G. W. Collins and R. Jeanloz, Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments, Review of Scientific Instruments, 86, 043112 (2015).
B. K. Godwal, F. Gonzalez-Cataldo, A. K. Verma, L. Stixrude and R. Jeanloz, Stability of iron crystal structures at 0.3-1.5 TPa, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 409, 299-306 (2015).
S. Brygoo, M. Millot, P. Loubeyre, A. E. Lazicki, S. Hammel, T. Qi, P. M. Celliers, F. Coppari, J. H. Eggert, D. E. Fratanduono, D. G. Hicks, J. R. Rygg, R. F. Smith, D. C. Swift, G. W. Collins and R. Jeanloz, Analysis of laser shock experiments on precompressed samples using a quartz reference and application to warm dense hydrogen and helium, Journal of Applied Physics, 118, 195901 (2015).
*R. Jeanloz, Environmental effects of nuclear war, in Andrei Sakharov, The Conscience of Humanity (S. D. Drell and G. P. Shultz, eds.), Hoover Press, Stanford, CA, pp. 53-68 (2015).
B. Romanowicz, A. Cao, B. Godwal, R. Wenk, S. Ventosa and R. Jeanloz, Seismic anisotropy in the Earth's innermost core: Testing structural models against mineral physics predictions, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 93-100 (2016).
S. V. Raju, B. K. Godwal, J. Yan, R. Jeanloz and S. K. Saxena, Yield strength of Ni-Al-Cr superalloy under pressure, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 657, 889-892 (2016).
Y. Chen, S. Zhang, W. Gao, F. Ke, J. Yan, B. Saha, C. Ko, J. Suh, B. Chen, J. W. Ager III, W. Walukiewicz, R. Jeanloz and J. Wu, Pressure-induced structural transition of CdxZn1-xO alloys, Applied Physics Letters, 108, 152105 (2016).
*R. Jeanloz (lead), The Nature of Multilateral Stability, U.S. Department of State International Security Advisory Board (2016).
Z. M. Geballe, G. W. Collins and R. Jeanloz, Modulation calorimetry in diamond anvil cells I: Heat flow models, Journal of Applied Physics, 121, 145902 (2017).
Z. M. Geballe, V. V. Struzhkin, A. Townley and R. Jeanloz, Modulation calorimetry in diamond anvil cells II: Joule-heating designs and prototypes, Journal of Applied Physics, 121, 145903 (2017).
*R. Jeanloz, Reviews of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and U.S. Security, in Nuclear Weapons and Related Security Issues (P. Corden, T. Fainberg, D. Hafemeister and A. Macfarlane, eds.), Volume 1898, AIP Publishing, Melville, New York, 030001 (2017).
Y. Chen, S. Zhang, F. Ke, C. Ko, S. Lee, K. Liu, B. Chen, J. W. Ager, R. Jeanloz, V. Eyert and J. Wu, Pressure-temperature diagram of vanadium dioxide, Nano Letters, 17, 2512-2516 (2017).
R. Jeanloz, Shock-wave and finite-strain equations of state at large expansion, in Advances in the Computational Sciences, Symposium in Honor of Dr. Berni Alder's 90th Birthday (E. Schwegler, B. M. Rubenstein and S. B. Libby, eds.), World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 148-161 (2017).
M. Millot, S. Hammel, J. R. Rygg, P. M. Celliers, G. W. Collins, F. Coppari, D. E. Fratanduono, R. Jeanloz, D. C. Swift and J. H. Eggert, Experimental evidence for superionic water using shock compression, Nature Physics, 14, 297-302 (2018).
B. Kalkan, B. Godwal, S. V. Raju and R. Jeanloz, Local structure of molten AuGa2 under pressure: Evidence for coordination change and planetary implications, Scientific Reports – Nature, 8, 6844 (2018).
S. V. Raju, B. K. Godwal, A. K. Singh, R. Jeanloz and S. K. Saxena, High-pressure strength of Ni3Al and Ni-Al-Cr, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 741, 642-647 (2018).
M. Li, S. Zhang, H. Zhang, G. Zhang, F. Wang, J. Zhao, C. Sun and R. Jeanloz, Continuous sound velocity measurements along the shock Hugoniot curve of quartz, Physical Review Letters, 120, 215703 (2018).
*R. Jeanloz and C. Stubbs, Governance and security through stability, in Beyond Disruption, Technology's Challenge to Governance, (G. P. Shultz, J. Hoagland and J. Timbie, eds.), Hoover Press, Stanford, CA, pp. 75–98 (2018).
P. M. Celliers, M. Millot, S. Brygoo, R. S. McWilliams, D. E. Fratanduono, J. R. Rygg, A. F. Goncharov, P. Loubeyre, J. H. Eggert, J. L. Peterson, N. B. Meezan, S. Le Pape, G. W. Collins, R. Jeanloz and R. J. Hemley, Insulator-metal transition in dense fluid deuterium, Science, 361, 677-682 (2018).
E. Greenberg, I. Leonov, S. Layek, Z. Konopkova, M. P. Pasternak, L. Dubrovinsky, R. Jeanloz, I. A. Abrikosov and G. Kh. Rozenberg, Pressure-induced site-selective Mott insulator-metal transition in Fe2O3, Physical Review X, 8, 031059 (2018).
T. Smart, H. Li, B. Dong, X. Shu, R. Hai, C. Sun, H. F. Zhang and R. Jeanloz, High-pressure nano-seismology: Use of micro-ring resonators for charecterizing acoustic emissions, Appl. Phys. Lett., 115, 081904 (2019).
A. Melinger-Cohen and R. Jeanloz, Finite strain analysis of shear and compressional wave velocities, Journal of Geophysical Research B, 124, doi.org/10.1029/2019JB017868 (2019).
S. Hsieh, P. Bhattacharyya, C. Zhu, T. Mittiga, T. J. Smart, F. Machado, B. Kobrin, T. O. Höhn, N. Z. Rui, M. Kamrani, S. Chatterjee, S. Choi, M. Zaletel, V. V. Struzhkin, J. E. Moore, V. I. Levitas, R. Jeanloz and N. Y. Yao, Imaging stress and magentism at high pressures using a nanoscale quantum sensor, Science,366, 1349-1354 (2019).
L. E. Crandall, J. R. Rygg, D. Spaulding, T. R. Boehly, S. Brygoo, P. Celliers, J. Eggert, D. E. Fratanduono, R. Jeanloz, A. Jenei, P. Loubetyre, M. C. Marshall, D. N. Polsin, M. Zaghoo, M. Millot and G. W. Collins, Equation of state of solid and liquid CO2 shocked to 1 TPa, Physical Review Letters, in press (2020).
Astronomy/EPS/Letters & Science C12, The Planets
Letters & Science 16, Age of the Earth
Interdepartmental Studies 24, Freshman Seminar
EPS 100A, Minerals: Cosmic Dust to Gems
EPS 102, History and Evolution of Planet Earth
Physics 105, Analytical Mechanics
EPS 108, Geodynamics
EPS 122, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors
Astronomy/EPS C162, Planetary Astrophysics
EPS 209, Mineral Thermodynamics
EPS 219, Seminar in Geophysics
EPS 220, Advanced Concepts in Mineral Physics
EPS 225, Topics in High-Pressure Research
EPS 300/375, Professional Preparation
Current Students and Associates (2020)
- Sarah Arveson (Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Planetary Geophysics)
- Matthew Diamond (Ph.D. student, Geophysics)
- B. K. Godwal (Senior Researcher, Physics)
- Thomas Smart (Ph.D. student, Geophysics)
- Davina Spears (Ph.D. student, Geophysics)
- Mercedes Vasquez (Ph.D. student, Geophysics)
Former Students and Associates
- Sofia Akber (Private Sector)
- Suzanne Ali (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Physics)
- Robin Benedetti (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Physics)
- Sorin Bodea (General Electric Corporate Offices)
- W. Alexander Caldwell (Private Sector)
- Teresa Dillon (Cornell University; Geological Sciences)
- Nobumasa Funamori (University of Tokyo; Geophysics)
- Zack Geballe (Carnegie Institution of Washington)
- Arianna Gleason (Stanford University/Los Alamos National Laboratory)
- Laurent Goeb (Private Sector)
- Brent Grocholski (Associate Editor, Science)
- Dion L. Heinz (University of Chicago; Geophysical Sciences)
- A. Hope Jahren (University of Oslo; Biogeochemistry)
- Mary L. Johnson (Private Sector)
- Abby Kavner (University of California, Los Angelese; Geophysics)
- In Ho Kim (Agency for Defense Development, Korea; Physics)
- Kwang-Joo Kim (Agency for Defense Development, Korea; Physics)
- Elise Knittle (University of California, Santa Cruz; Earth Sciences)
- Michael Kruger (University of Dakota; Dean)
- Chaincy Kuo (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Seismology)
- Kanani K.M. Lee (Yale; Geophysics)
- Victoria E. Lee (Lamont, Columbia University; Geochemistry)
- Mu Li (Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics)
- Xiaoyuan Li (Private Sector)
- Hongjian Liu (Private Sector)
- Hector A. Lorenzana (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Physics)
- Michael Manga (University of California, Berkeley; Earth and Planetary Science)
- R. Stewart McWilliams (University of Edinburgh; Physics and Astronomy)
- Charles Meade (Private Sector)
- Ari Melinger-Cohen (Freelance)
- Gregory H. Miller (University of California, Davis; Applied Science)
- Marius Millot (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics)
- Wren Montgomery (Imperial College, London; Geochemistry)
- Jeffrey H. Nguyen (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Physics)
- Noaz Nissim (Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Israel; Physics)
- Bridget O'Neill (University of Arizona, Lowell Observatory)
- Wendy Panero (Ohio State University; Geological Sciences)
- Avi Ravid (Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Israel; Physics)
- Takeo Shibata (Private Sector)
- Dan Shim (Arizona State University; Experimental Geophysics)
- Dylan Spaulding (UC Davis; Earth and Planetary Sciences)
- Sergio Speziale (GFZ, Potsdam; Mineral Physics)
- Lars Strixrude (University of California, Los Angeles; Geophysics)
- Quentin C. Williams (University of California, Santa Cruz; Earth Sciences)
- George H. Wolf (Arizona State University; Chemistry)
- Richeng Yu (Chinese Academy of Sciences; Physics)